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Writing and Citing: Help with Research Papers

"If we knew what it was we were doing, it would not be called research, would it?" Albert Einstein

Copyright for Faculty

Four Basic Factors of Fair Use

  1. purpose and character of use
  2. nature of the copyrighted work
  3. amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole
  4. effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work (giving due weight especially to the impact of the use on the potential market for the original work)

Source: Questions & Answers on Copyright for the Campus Community, 7th ed.

Guidelines for educators to use to determine Fair Use can be found in the 24-page guide: "Circular 21 - Reproduction of Copyrighted Works by Educators and Librarians" distributed by

Other Copyright Resources

Using Persistent Links in Ebsco Databases